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			<h1>Tips and Tricks </h1>

			

<h2 id="managing-software">Managing software</h2>

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<p>Being based on Debian, AIMS Desktop uses the APT (Advanced Package Tool) to manage software.</p>

<p>Software and its dependencies on AIMS Desktop is managed via packages, for each program on
your computer, there is at least one package. Packages can be installed, removed or upgraded.</p>

<p>Here we will show you how to manage software using APT in the command line. APT needs root
(administrator) privileges, so you need to run it using the sudo command.</p>

<p>For example, if you want to install the program &ldquo;meld&rdquo;, you would use <code>apt install</code>:</p>

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<pre><code class="language-none">$ sudo apt install meld
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The following NEW packages will be installed:
  meld
Do you want to continue? [Y/n] y
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</code></pre>

<p>If you would like to remove that package, you can use <code>apt remove</code>:</p>

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<pre><code class="language-none">$ sudo apt remove meld
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The following packages will be REMOVED:
  meld
Do you want to continue? [Y/n] y
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</code></pre>
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<p>APT&rsquo;s remove tool plays it safe, and doesn&rsquo;t automatically remove configuration
files or data that may have been created for a package in the system. If you&rsquo;d
like to remove that as well, you can use the purge command. This does not affect
any data in your home directory.</p>

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<pre><code class="language-none">$ sudo apt purge meld
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The following packages will be REMOVED:
  meld*
Do you want to continue? [Y/n] y
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</code></pre>

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<p>You will notice an asterisk next to the package name, this indicates that the
package will be purged, as apposed to a normal removal.</p>

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<p>Security updates and other important software updates happen regularly. To update
the list of the available packages for your system, you can run <code>apt update</code>. To
install any available upgrades, you can run <code>apt upgrade</code>.</p>

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<pre><code class="language-none">$ sudo apt update
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Hit:1 http://http.debian.net/debian stretch InRelease
Get:1 http://security.debian.org/debian-security stretch/updates InRelease [62.9 kB]
...
$ sudo apt upgrade
The following packages were automatically installed and are no longer required:
  libnfsidmap2 libtirpc1
  Use 'sudo apt autoremove' to remove them.
The following packages will be upgraded:
  busybox
Do you want to continue? [Y/n] y
</code></pre>

<p>In the example above, apt points out that two of the installed packages are no longer
required. They might have been installed as dependencies of packages that have been
previously removed. To remove them, use the <code>apt autoremove</code> command:</p>

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<pre><code class="language-none">The following packages will be REMOVED:
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  libnfsidmap2 libtirpc1
Do you want to continue? [Y/n]
</code></pre>

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<div class="admonition note">
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<p class="admonition-title">Tip: GNOME Software</p>
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<p>GNOME Software is a graphical front-end that supports APT.
It makes it easier to find and install software if
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you&rsquo;re still new to the system.</p>

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<div style="text-align: center; margin-top: 1em;">
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<img src="https://desktop.aims.ac.za/images/tips-tricks/gnome-software.png" alt="" />
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</div>
</p>
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</div>
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<h2 id="connecting-to-remote-servers-via-ssh">Connecting to remote servers via SSH</h2>

<p><span style="color: #424242;"><b>Introduction:</b> Servers that you
normally ssh into can be accessed through the Nautilus file manager.
This allows you browse your remote files, edit them and copy to and
from the remote server.</span></p>
<p><span style="color: #424242;"><b>Step 1:</b> Open Nautilus/Files</span></p>
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<p><span style="text-align: center"><img alt="" src="https://desktop.aims.ac.za/images/tips-tricks/2017.01-nautilus-ssh-1.png" /></span></p>
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<p><span style="color: #424242;"><b>Step 2:</b> In the location pane,
click on <em>Other Locations</em>.</span></p>
<p><span style="text-align: center"><img alt="" src="https://desktop.aims.ac.za/images/tips-tricks/2017.01-nautilus-ssh-2.png" /></span></p>
<p><span style="color: #424242;"><b>Step 3:</b> At the bottom there is a
field to <em>Connect to Server</em>.</span></p>
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<p><span style="text-align: center"><img alt="" src="https://desktop.aims.ac.za/images/tips-tricks/2017.01-nautilus-ssh-3.png" /></span></p>
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<p><span style="color: #424242;"><b>Step 4:</b> In this field enter
<code>ssh://&lt;user&gt;@&lt;server&gt;</code>, where
<code>&lt;user&gt;</code> is your username and
<code>&lt;server&gt;</code> is the address of the server you are
connecting to.  Replace <code>ssh</code> with <code>sftp</code> if you
wish to connect to a SFTP server.</span></p>
<p><span style="color: #424242;"><b>Step 5:</b> This will prompt you for
a password if necessary and mount the location. You will see the
server in the left panel and a listing of files on the right.</span></p>
<p><span style="color: #424242;"><b>Step 6:</b> If you wish to bookmark this server for future use,
right-click on the server in the location pane and select
<em>Add Bookmark</em></span></p>
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<p><span style="text-align: center"><img alt="" src="https://desktop.aims.ac.za/images/tips-tricks/2017.01-nautilus-ssh-4.png" /></span></p>
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<h2 id="changing-your-password">Changing your password</h2>

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<ul>
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<li class="has-sub" class="active"><a href="#"><span>GNOME Desktop</span></a>
<ul>
<li><span style="color: #424242;"><b>Step 1:</b> Open the Activities
overview and start typing <em>Users</em>.</span></li>
<li><img width="100%" alt="" title="Finding the Users settings in GNOME"
src="/images/tips-tricks/2017.01-change-password-1.png" /></li>
<li><span style="color: #424242;"><b>Step 2:</b> Click <em>Users</em> to
open the panel.</span></li>
<li><img alt="" width="100%" title="The Users panel in GNOME"
src="/images/tips-tricks/2017.01-change-password-2.png" /></li>
<li><span style="color: #424242;"><b>Step 3:</b> Click the label next to
<em>Password</em>.</span></li>
<li><span style="color: #424242;"><b>Step 4:</b> Enter your current
password, then a new password.</span></li>
<li><span style="color: #424242;">Enter your new password again in the
<em>Verify New Password</em> field. You can press the gear icon to
automatically generate a random password.</span></li>
<li><img width="100%" alt="" title="The change password dialog"
src="/images/tips-tricks/2017.01-change-password-3.png" /></li>
<li><span style="color: #424242;"><b>Step 5:</b> Click <em>Change</em>.</span></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="has-sub" class="active"><a href="#"><span>Command Line</span></a>
<ul>
<li><span style="color: #424242;"><b>Step 1:</b> Open the terminal</span></li>
<li><span style="color: #424242;"><b>Step 2:</b> Enter
<pre><code>passwd</code></pre> and follow the prompts</span></li>
<li><span style="color: #424242;">Enter your current password, your new
password and then confirm your new password. You will not be able to
see your password when you type it in.</span></li>
</ul>
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</li>
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<div class="admonition note">
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<p class="admonition-title">How to choose a strong password</p>
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<p><li class="has-sub" class="active"></a>
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<ul>
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<li><span>Make your passwords easy enough for
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you to remember, but very difficult to for others to guess. Your
password guards your personal information, so you should make sure
it is a strong one.</span></li>
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<li><span>Use a mixture of upper-case and
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lower-case letters, numbers, symbols and spaces in the password. A
good way of doing this to the take the first letter of each word
and the grammar of a phrase you can remember.</span></li>
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<li><span>Make your password as long as
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possible. This makes it difficult for a person or computer to guess
it.</span></li>
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<li><span>Do not use one or two words from a
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dictionary in any language. These are what programs use to try crack
your password.</span></li>
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<li><span>Do not use any personal information
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such as a date, family member&rsquo;s name or a pet.</span></li>
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<li><span>Never write your password down.</span></li>
<li><span>Use different passwords for different
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things.</span></li>
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</ul></p>
</div>
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</ul>
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<h2 id="file-templates">File Templates</h2>

<p>In previous versions, you could right-click anywhere in the file manager and create
a new blank file. In the current version, this has been extended so that you can create
any kind of file as a template for a new file. This could be a shell script, document, blank file
or any other kind of document that you create on a regular basis.</p>

<p>To do this, all you need to do is place new documents as template files in your Templates directory.</p>

<p><img alt="" width="100%" title="Templates directory in file browser"
src="/images/templates/templates-1.png" /></p>

<p>Then, those documents will be available when you right-click in the file browser:</p>

<p><img alt="" width="100%" title="Templates being accessed in file browser"
src="/images/templates/templates-2.png" /></p>

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